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Le Corbusier
Date: Swiss, 1887 - 1965
Biography: 1887- born 6 October at 38 rue de la Serre, La Chaux-de-Fonds, de Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier), son of Georges Edouard Jeanneret, watch engraver and enameller, and of Marie Charlotte Amélie Jeanneret-Perret, music teacher. 1891- Primary school in La Chaux-de-Fonds. 1900- Studies watch engraving at the Art School, under Charles L’Eplattenier. 1902- Awarded a Diploma at the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Turin for a chased watchcase . 1904- Enters the Advanced Decorative Arts Course (based at the Art School) directed by Charles L’Eplattenier, who interests Le Corbusier in architecture. 1905- Commissioned by Louis Fallet, a member of the Board of the Art School, to design a villa, which he builds in collaboration with the architect René Chapallaz. 1907- In september, trip to Italy de two and a half month : Milan, Florence… Visits the Charterhouse of Ema in Galluzzo, Siena, Bologna, Padua, Gargoano, Venice (october - beginning of November). In November leaves for Vienna via Budapest. Stay in Vienna four month : where he works on the plans for the Stolzer and Jacquemet villas in La Chaux-de-Fonds. 1908- Vienna: meets Josef Hoffmann, Koloman Moser and Gustav Klimt. En mars, Travels to Paris via Nuremberg, Munich, Strasbourg, Nancy. In Lyon, meets Tony Garnier. In Paris, visits Frantz Jourdain, Charles Plumet, Henri Sauvage, Eugène Grasset. Works for Auguste and Gustave Perret as draughtsman, half-time. 1909- Autumn: returns to La Chaux-de-Fonds to supervise construction of the Stotzer and Jacquemet villas 1910- Foundation of the Ateliers d’Art Réunis (United Art Studios). Participation in a national ski race (Grindelwald). April : commissioned by the Art School of La Chaux-de-Fonds to research the decorative arts movement in Germany. " Writes his Étude sur le mouvement d’art décoratif en Allemagne (Study of the decorative art movement in Germany) in 1912. Winter: works for Peter Behrens’s architectural practice in Berlin. Meets Walter Gropius and Mies Van der Rohe. 1911- Meets Heinrich Tessenow, architect of Hellerau garden city in Dresden. In May, leaves Dresden for his journey to the East : Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucarest, Tarnovo, Gabrovo, Kasanlik, Istanbul, le Mount Athos (21 days), Athens and southern Italy, in the company of his friend Auguste Klipstein, an art history student. During this trip, he made numerous drawings, sketches and notes in his sketchbooks, as well as several hundred photographs. He worked his notes up into articles for the Feuille d’avis, a magazine in La Chaux-de-Fonds. October: returns to La Chaux-de-Fonds, via the Charterhouse of Ema , in order to set up a new section of the Art School with L’Eplattenier. 1912- La Chaux-de-Fonds : Builds the villa Jeanneret-Perret in the rue de la Montagne (for his parents) and the Villa Favre-Jacot in the nearby town of Le Locle. 1913- Exhibition of 10 watercolors "Le langage des Pierres" (the language of stones), at the Salon d’Automne, Paris. Certificate of competency for teaching art. 1914- Closing of the Nouvelle Section at the Ecole d’Art in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Travels to Cologne for the Deutscher Werkbund exhibition and conference. Begins studies on his Dom-ino concrete house project. 1915- Occasional trips to Paris to study in the Bibliothèque Nationale Print Room. Works on his manuscript "La construction des villes". 1916- Builds villa Schwob and the Scala cinema (La Chaux-de-Fonds). 1917- Final departure from La Chaux-de-Fonds Opens his first Parisian architecture studio at 20 rue de Belzunce (10th arrondissement), then at 29 rue d’Astorg (8th arrondissement). Lives in Paris at 20 rue Jacob (6th arrondissement) until 1933. Works as consultant to the SABA (Société d’application du béton armé) from April 1917 to January 1919. 1918- Though Auguste Perret, meets the painter Amédée Ozenfant and several other artists: Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso, Jacques Lipchitz etc… Paints"La cheminée". “Purist” exhibition at the Galerie Thomas in Paris, with the painter Amédée Ozenfant. 1919- Launches L’Esprit Nouveau magazine " with Amédée Ozenfant and Paul Dermée. 1920- Meets Fernand Léger.?Adopts the pseudonym Le Corbusier for his architectural persona, derived from his maternal grandfather, Lecorbesier. 1921- With With Amédée Ozenfant, buys Cubist paintings at the Kahnweiler and Uhde sales for Raoul La Roche (1921-1923). Exhibits paintings in the Galerie Druet. . Trip at Rome with Amédée Ozenfant. 1922- Architectural partnership with Pierre Jeanneret begins. Lectures at Sorbonne. Meets Yvonne Gallis, a model from Monaco, whom he will marry in 1930. Exhibits the plan of a contemporary city for three million people at the Salon d’Automne. Builds the Villa Besnus (in the Vaucresson suburb of Paris) and the Ozenfant Studio in Paris. Works on a number of unexecuted architectural projects: maison Citrohan, Immeubles-villas... 1923- Publishes Vers une Architecture (based on articles published in L’Esprit Nouveau), published in English in 1927 as Towards a New Architecture Exhibits with Amédée Ozenfant at the Rosenberg Galerie de l’Effort Moderne the La Roche and Jeanneret-Raaf villas (1923-4) and the the little house "Le Lac" at Corseaux on Lake Geneva for his parents. 1924- Establishes his architectural office at 35 rue de Sèvres (6th arrondissement). Gives lectures in Geneva, Lausanne and Prague. Meets Krishnamurti. Publishes L’Urbanisme (based on articles in L’Esprit Nouveau). six workers’ houses and a dormitory and refectory at Lège (near Bordeaux) and villas Lipchitz-Miestchaninoff (Boulogne sur Seine). 1925- Publishes Almanach d’architecture moderne (An Almanach of modern architecture) and L’Art décoratif d’aujourd’hui (Decorative Art of Today) and (with Amédée Ozenfant) La Peinture Moderne (Modern Painting) (all based on articles published or intended for L’Esprit Nouveau). Builds Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau (Paris) and the Pessac housing estate near Bordeaux . Studies for Plan Voisin for a modernisation of Paris and the Villa Meyer. Introduced to the Minister Anatole de Monzie by Gertrude Stein. 1926- Death of Georges Edouard Jeanneret, father of Le Corbusier, on 11th april. Publishes Architecture d’époque machiniste (Architecture of the machine age). Builds the Villa Cook (Boulogne-sur-Seine), the Guiette house (Antwerp), the Salvation Army hostel (Paris) and the Ternisien house (Boulogne-sur-Seine). 1927- Lectures in Madrid, Barcelona (sees the buildings of Antonio Gaudi who died in that year), Brussels and Frankfurt. Enters the competition for the League of Nations building in Geneva (one of nine sharing first prize). Builds Villa Stein-de Monzie in Garches, a suburb of Paris, villa Planeix (Paris) and two houses at the Deutscher Werkbund housing exhibition at Weissenhof, Stuttgart.. 1928- Founder member of CIAM (Congrés Internationaux d’architecture moderne) at the castle of La Sarraz, in Switzerland.. Publishes Une Maison - un Palais (A house - a palace). Lectures in Prague and Moscow. Holidays at Picquey in the Basin of Arcachon. Builds the Baizeau Villa (in the suburb of Carthage, Tunis) and the Villa Church (Ville d’Avray) and builds an exhibition stand for Nestlé and Centrosoyus (Moscow). 1929- Trip in South America. Lecture tour in Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Meets Joséphine Baker during this trip on the boat between Bordeaux and Rio. Exhibits an apartment interior in the Salon d’Automne Paris, in collaboration with Pierre Jeanneret and Charlotte Perriand Second CIAM conference at Frankfurt. Works on the Villa Savoye (Poissy), the Mundaneum (a center of world knowledge) and urbanism in South America. 1930- Takes French nationality. Wedding with Yvonne Gallis on 18th December. Trip to Moscow where he meets Ysevolod Meyerhold, Aleksander Tairov, Sergueï Eisenstein. Travels across Spain with Fernand Léger and Pierre and Albert Jeanneret. Third CIAM conference in Brussels. Publishes Précisions sur un état présent de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme (based on his 1929 lectures in South America). Contributes to the magazine Plans. Builds a penthouse apartment for Charles de Beistegui on the Champs Elysées, a villa for Hélène de Mandrot at Le Pradet, near Toulon, the Clarté apartment block in Geneva and the Swiss Pavilion at the Cité Universitaire in Paris. Works on urban designs for Algiers et and studies for “Ville Radieuse” and for the Palace of Soviets, Moscow. 1931- Travels across Spain with Pierre Jeanneret and then on to Morocco and Algeria. Visits the M’zab (Ghardaïa). Builds the apartment block at 24 rue Nungesser-et-Coli, Boulogne-sur-Seine, including a penthouse apartment and studio for himself. 1932- Takes part in the planning competition for the Exposition internationale des arts et techniques (1937). Lectures in Stockholm, Oslo, Göteborg, Antwerp and Algiers. CIRPAC in Barcelone.. 1933- Receives Honorary Doctorate at the University of Zürich. Participates in Fourth CIAM conference, on the SS Patris and in Athens.. Contributes to the Athens Charter. Member of the review “Préludes”. 1934- Moves into appartment and studio spaces on the seventh storey of the Immeuble 24 rue Nungesser et Coli , where he resides the rest of his life. Lectures in Rome, Milan, Algiers and Barcelona. Frequent trips to Algiers. Visits the Lingotto Fiat factory in Turin by Giacomo Mattè-Trucco . Designs the Radiant Farm project with Norbert Bézard. 1935- Publishes Aircraft and La Ville Radieuse (The Radiant City). First trip to the USA, where he lectures in Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Madison and Hartford... Trip to Zlin in Czechoslovakia (works on Bata plans for the valley of Zlin). Meets Joseph Savina. Louis Carré puts on an exhibition of primitive art in Le Corbusier’s apartment. Builds the week-end house (La Celle Saint Cloud) and the Villa ‘Le Sextant’ in Les Mathes, near Bordeaux. 1936- Second trip to Brazil on the Graf Zeppelin. Gives advice to Lúcio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer, Alfonso Reidy and others for the Ministry of National Education and Health building in Rio. Lectures in Rio de Janeiro. Designs a 100,000 seater stadium, Paris. Paints wall mural in Vézelay in Jean Badovici’s house. Marie Cuttoli first tapestry. 1937- Receives the title of Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur by the French government. Honorary Member of RIBA. Fifth CIAM conference in Paris. Lectures in Brussels and Lyons. Publishes Quand les Cathédrales étaient blanches (When the Cathedrals were white). Works on the plan of Paris and his Cartesian skyscraper. Builds the Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux at the International Exhibition in Paris. 1938- Painting exhibitions at the Kunsthaus Zürich et à la and at the Louis Carré Gallery in Paris.. Following a severe accident while swimming (caused by a power boat propeller) is operated on in the hospital at St Tropez. Publishes Des canons, des munitions? Merci! Des logis … S.V.P (Guns and ammunition? No thanks! Give us housing please) and Ilôt Insalubre N° 6 (Insanitary Zone N° 6). Paints eight wall murals in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin in Eileen Gray’s house. 1939- Meets Jean Giraudoux during the launch of the C.E.P.U. (Committee for preparatory urban studies). Awarded a foreign national’s Diploma at the Royal Fine Arts Academy in Stockholm. Publishes “Le lyrisme des temps nouveaux et l’urbanisme” (The lyricism of the new age and urbanism) in the magazine Le Point. 1940- Closes his office at 35 rue de Sèvres on 11 June and leaves for Ozon in the Pyrenees with Yvonne , and Pierre Jeanneret. 1941- Extended stay in Vichy. Publishes Destin de Paris (Destiny of Paris) and Sur les Quatre Routes (On the four roads). 1942- Founds ASCORAL (Constructors’ meeting for architectural renewal). Official trip to Algiers. Reopens the office at 35 rue de Sèvres. Publishes Constructions ‘Murondins’ (the 'Murondins' constructions) and La maison des hommes (The house of men) with François de Pierrefeu. 1943- Begins collaboration with Joseph Savina. Publishes the Charte d’Athènes (Athens Charter) and Entretiens avec les étudiants des Écoles d’architecture (Conversations with architecture students". 1944- Works on the Unités d’Habitation. 1945- Founds ATBAT (Builders’ Studio). Meets Eugène Claudius Petit. On the Liberty ship Vernon S. Hood he works on the Modulor system of proportions. Publishes Trois Établissements Humains. 1946- Travels to USA at Princeton. Meets Albert Einstein. Publishes Manière de penser l’urbanisme (A way of thinking about urbanism) and Propos d’urbanisme (An urban proposition). 1947- Involved as consultant to the committee responsible for the United Nations Headquarters building in New York. Sixth CIAM conference at Bridgwater, England. Publishes U.N. Headquarters. Builds the Claude et Duval factory in Saint-Dié. Foundation of Unité d'Habitation, Marseilles.. 1948- Several exhibitions in the United States: Galerie Paul Rosenberg in New York, Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston and Detroit, San Francisco; Colorado Springs, Cleveland,... Begins collaboration with Pierre Baudouin on the design of tapestries. Wall mural of the Pavillon Suisse at Cité Universitaire. At the request of employees of Le Corbusier’ studio paints a wall mural in the studio at 35 rue de Sèvres. 1949- Signs a contract with the Colombian authorities for the study of urbanization in Bogotá. Seventh CIAM in Bergamo. Builds the Currutchet house, La Plata. Visits Unité d’habitation in Marseilles with Jean-Pierre Aumont, actor. Visits Unité d’habitation in Marseilles with Pablo Picasso. 1950- Starts working on the Chapel at Ronchamp. Consultant to the administration of Punjab for the planning of the new capital city of Chandigarh, with Pierre Jeanneret, Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Publishes Modulor I, Poèsie sur Alger (Poem on Algiers) and L’Unité d’Habitation de Marseille. Builds the Cabanon in Roquebrune Cap Martin , Le Corbusier's holiday resort. 1951- 18 February, first trip to India : visits Chandigarh and Ahmedabad. Seventh CIAM conference at Hoddesdon. Lectures at Bogota. Sojourns in New York. Works at Constantino Nivola's on sandcast and murals. Plans for the U.N.E.S.C.O. Headquarters in Paris are rejected Exhibition at MOMA (New York). Presentation of the "Open Hand" monument in Chandigarh. Construction of the Chapel at Ronchamp , villas Shodan and Sarabhaï (Ahmedabad), Museum (Ahmedabad), Mill Owners’ Association (Ahmedabad) Second trip to India in November. Begins the projects for Chandigarh : Assembly, High Court, Governor’s Palace, Secretariat, Museum. Lectures at the Milan Triennale. 1952- Receives the title of Commandeur de la Légion d'Honneur. Third trip to India in March 1952. Inauguration of the Unité d'habitation in Marseilles on 14th october. Builds Jaoul Houses (Neuilly sur Seine) and Unité d'Habitation (Rezé les Nantes). 1953- Appointed as member of the Five-person Committee to oversee the project for U.N.E.S.C.O. (Paris) with Gropius, Breuer, Markelius et Rogers. Visits Jean Martin, enamel in Luynes. Ninth CIAM in Aix en Provence. Art works exhibition at the Musée d'Art Moderne in Paris. Builds Dominican Monastery at Sainte Marie de la Tourette (Eveux) and de la Maison du Brésil at Cité Universitaire (Paris) with Lucio Costa. 1954- Trip to Japan, project for the Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, November. 1955- Honorary doctoral degree from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. Inauguration of Chapel of Ronchamp and Unité d'habitation (Rezé). Trip to Chandigarh for the inauguration of the High Court building by Jawaharlal Nehru. Publishes "Poème de l'Angle Droit", "Modulor II", and "L'Architecture du bonheur - L'urbanisme est une clef". Construction of the stele for the tomb of Le Corbusier' wife and Dam (Bhakra). 1956- Refuses a teaching post at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Publishes "Les plans de Paris". Exhibition in Lyon. 1957- Death of Yvonne Le Corbusier (on 5th october). Large retrospective exhibition, entitled "Ten cities", curated by W. Boesiger in Zurich, Berlin, Munich, Frankfurt, Vienna, The Hague, Paris etc... Exhibition at the Musée des Beaux Arts in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Honorary Citizen of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen. Receives the title of Commandeur des Arts et Lettres. Publishes "Von der Poesie des Bauens" and "Ronchamp". Builds Unité d'habitation (Berlin), Maison du Brésil at Cité Universitaire (Paris) with Lucio Costa, Dominican Monastery Sainte Marie de La Tourette (Eveux), Unité d'habitation (Briey en Forêt) and Museum of Western Art (Tokyo). 1958- Trip to USA.?Diploma "Litteris et Artibus" in Sweden on 12th september. High Honor from the Universal and International Exhibition of Brussels. Builds Philips Pavilion at the World’s Fair in Brussels. Designs the visual composition "Poème Electronique", music by Edgar Varèse. Inauguration of the Secretariat in Chandigarh. 1959 ?Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Cambridge. International Campaign for classification as protected heritage of the Villa Savoye. Trip to India. Builds Maison de la Culture (Firminy). Commission from Eugène Claudius-Petit for the Unité d'habitation in Firminy-vert. Publishes wallpaper for Salubra. 1960- Death of his mother, Marie Charlotte Amélie Jeanneret-Perret , in Corseaux, 15 February. Lecture at La Sorbonne, 4 February. Inauguration of Dominican Monastery at Sainte Marie de la Tourette, 19 October. Publishes "L'Atelier de la Recherche Patiente". Sluice facilities on the Rhine River at Kembs-Niffer. 1961- Receives the title of Commandeur de l'ordre du Mérite. Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Colombia. Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects. Frequent trips to Firminy. Studies for Saint Pierre Church. Designs seven sketches for the tapestries of the High Court in Chandigarh. Designs a dinner service for Prunier restaurant (London) inspired from the tapestry “Les Mains”. Exhibition in Zurich and Stockholm. Publishes "Orsay - Paris 1961". Trip to India. Builds Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts (Cambridge) with J-L. Sert. 1962 ?Trip to Brazil for the project of the Embassy of France in Brasilia. Retrospective exhibition at the Musée d'Art Moderne (Paris). Inauguration of the Assembly Building in Chandigarh and Construction of Housing Units (Firminy). 1963- Gold Medal of the City of Florence.. Receives the title of Grand officier de la Légion d'Honneur. Conferred Honorary Doctorate from the University of Geneva. Inauguration of the Carpenter Center for Visual Arts. Exhibition at the Palais Strozzi (Florence) Designs the Maison de l'Homme for Heidi Weber, Zürich.1964 ?Receives the Grand Croix of the Legion d'Honneur from Malraux in the Studio, 35 rue de Sèvres in June. Designs the project for the Venice Hospital Exhibitions in Zürich and La Chaux-de-Fonds. 1965 ?Revises the study of the Monument of the Open Hand for Chandigarh. Awarded Diploma by the Architectural Society of Boston. Publishes Textes et Dessins pour Ronchamp (Texts and drawings for Ronchamp). Construction of the stadium in Firminy. On 27 August, Le Corbusier dies while swimming at Cap-Martin. On 1 September, Official Funeral in the Cour Carrée at the Louvre. Burial in the cemetery at Cap-Martin. *Citation-